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International Journal of Approximate Reasoning

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Top 25 articles

Information for Authors


International Journal of Approximate Reasoning


The International Journal of Approximate Reasoning is dedicated to the dissemination of research results from the field of approximate reasoning and its applications, with emphasis on the design and implementation of intelligent systems for scientific and engineering applications. Approximate reasoning is computational modeling of any part of the process used by humans to reason about natural phenomena. The journal welcomes archival research papers, surveys, short notes and communications, and book reviews. Current areas of interest include, but are not limited to, applications and/or theories pertaining to computer vision, engineering and expert systems, fuzzy logic and control, information retieval and database design, machine learning, neurocomputing, pattern recognition, and robotics.


Piero P. Bonissone
General Electric
Corporate Research and Development

Associate Editors

Wyllis Bandler, Florida State University Marc Roubens, Faculte Polytecnique de Mons
James C. Bezdek, University of West Florida Prakash Shenoy, University of Kansas
Gautam Biswas, Vanderbilt University Enrique Ruspini, SRI International
Bruce D'Ambrosio, Oregon State University P.H. Smets, Universite Libre de Bruxelles
James Keller, University of Missouri Enric Trillas, Universidad Politecnica de Barcelona
Tod Levitt, Stanford University I.B. Turksen, University of Toronto
Hung T. Nguyen, New Mexico State University Marco Valtorta, University of South Carolina
Nikhil R. Pal, Indian Statistical Institute Maria Zemankova, National Science Foundation
Helen Rasiowa, Uniwersytet Warszawski  

Advisory Board

Didier Dubois, Universite Paul Sabatier Michio Sugeno, Tokyo Institute of Technology
George Klir, SUNY, Binghamton R.R. Yager, Iona College
Sankar K. Pal, Indian Statistical Institute Takeshi Yamakawa, Kyushu Institute of Technology
Henri Prade, Universaite Paul Sabatier Lotfi Zadeh, University of California at Berkeley
Glenn Shafer, University of Kansas Hans Zimmermann, Institute for Operations Research

Founding Editor:

James C. Bezdek, University of West Florida

International Journal of Approximate Reasoning is published eight times a year in January, February, May, June, August, September, October, and November by Elsevier Science Inc. Society rate available through the North American Fuzzy Information Processing Society (NAFIPS). Contact Dr. Thomas Whalen, Dept. of Decision Science, Georgia State University, Atlanta, Georgia 30303, U.S.A., for more information. Outside the United States, add $49.00 for postage and handling.

POSTMASTER: Send address changes to International Journal of Approximate Reasoning, Elsevier Science Inc., 655 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10010. Application to mail at second-class postage rates is pending at New York, NY and at additional mailing offices.

Claims for missing issues can be honored only up to six months for domestic addresses, six months for foreign addresses. Duplicate copies will not be sent to replace ones undelivered through failure to notify Elsevier of change of address. Single copy and back volume information available upon request.

Please direct orders for this journal, change of address, and claims for missing items to: Journals Fulfillment Department, Elsevier Science Inc., P.O. Box 882, Madison Square Station, New York, NY 10159.

Please direct inquiries regarding the placement of advertising in this journal to: Tino DeCarlo, Elsevier Science Inc., 655 Avenue of the Americans, New York, NY 10010. Telephone: (212) 633-3815; FAX: (212) 633-3820.

This journal has been registered with the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. Consent is given for copying of articles for personal and internal use, or for the personal or internal use of specific clients. This consent is given on the condition that the copier pay through the Center the per-copy fee stated in the code on the first page of each article for copying beyond that permitted by the U.S. Copyright Law. If no code appears on an article, the author has not given broad consent to copy, and permission to copy must be obtained directly from the author. This consent does not extend to other kinds of copying, such as for general distribution, resale, advertising and promotional purposes, or for creating new collective works.

All inquires regarding copyrighted material from this publication, other than reproduction through the Copyright Clearance Center, should be directed to: Rights and Permissions Department, elsevier Science Inc., 655 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10010. FAX: 212-633-3977

International Journal of Approximate Reasoning is indexed/abstracted in ABI/Inform, Bowker Artificial Intelligence Abstracts, Computing Reviews, INSPEC, ISI Science Citations Index, and Mathematical Reviews.


Top 25 Articles

The following list shows the 25 most downloaded articles as determined by Elsevier Science:

Top 25 most downloaded articles

Further information concerning the journal can be found at International Journal of Approximate Reasoning.


Information for Authors

There are three options available for International Journal of Approximate Reasoning

  • Authors are encouraged to submit their papers electronically by using online manuscript submission at http://www.elsubmit.com/esubmit/ija. Authors interested in online submission are requested to go to the website and upload their manuscript and its associated artwork. An electronic (PDF) proof is generated and the reviewing process is carried out using that PDF. The PDF file may be edited after acceptance to follow journal standards. Authors and editors send and receive all correspondence by email via the website and no paper correspondence is performed.
  • Authors can also submit their ps or pdf file to the editor-in-chief via e-mail.
  • Alternatively, authors can send five copies of their paper (including one original of the figures) to the editor-in-chief.

For the up to date address of the editor-in-chief, please refer to the list of editors in each issue of the journal or on the journal's homepage.


Articles must be written in good English.

Submission of an article implies that the work described has not been published previously (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture or academic thesis), that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, that its publication is approved by all authors and tacitly or explicitly by the responsible authorities where the work was carried out, and that, if accepted, it will not be published elsewhere in the same form, in English or in any other language, without the written consent of the Publisher.

Upon acceptance of an article, authors will be asked to transfer copyright. This transfer will ensure the widest possible dissemination of information. A letter will be sent to the corresponding author confirming receipt of the manuscript. A form facilitating transfer of copyright will be provided. If excerpts from other copyrighted works are included, the author(s) must obtain written permission from the copyright owners and credit the source(s) in the article. Elsevier Science has preprinted forms for use by authors in these cases: contact ES Global Rights Department, P.O. Box 800, Oxford, OX5 1DX, UK; phone: (+44) 1865 843830, fax: (+44) 1865 853333, permissions@elsevier.co.uk.

Sending accepted articles to Elsevier in electronic format

We accept most wordprocessing formats, but Word, WordPerfect or LaTeX is preferred. An electronic version of the text should be submitted together with the final hardcopy of the manuscript. The electronic version must match the hardcopy exactly. Always keep a backup copy of the electronic file for reference and safety. Label storage media with your name, journal title, and software used. Save your files using the default extension of the program used. No changes to the accepted version are permissible without the explicit approval of the Editor. Electronic files can be stored on 3.5 inch diskette, ZIP-disk or CD (either MS-DOS or Macintosh).

LaTeX documents
If the LaTeX file is suitable, proofs will be produced without rekeying the text. The article should preferably be written using Elsevier Science's document class 'elsart', or alternatively the standard document class 'article'. The Elsevier LaTeX package (including detailed instructions for LaTeX preparation) can be obtained from Elsevier's web site: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/latex. It consists of the files: elsart.cls (use this file if you are using LaTeX2e, the current version of LaTeX), elsart.sty and elsart13.sty (use these two files if you are using LaTeX3.09, the previous version of LaTeX), guidelines for users of elsart, a template file for quick start, and the instruction booklet "Preparing articles with LaTeX".

Presentation of manuscript

Print the entire manuscript on one side of the paper only, using double spacing and wide (3 cm) margins. (Avoid full justification, i.e., do not use a constant right-hand margin.) Ensure that each new paragraph is clearly indicated. Present tables and figure legends on separate pages at the end of the manuscript. If possible, consult a recent issue of the journal to become familiar with layout and conventions. Number all pages consecutively.

Title page
The title page should contain the article title, author(s) names and affiliations, related footnotes, an abstract of approximately 200 words, and a list of keywords.

Corresponding author
Clearly indicate who is willing to handle correspondence at all stages of refereeing and publication, also post-publication. Ensure that telephone and fax numbers (with country and area code) are provided in addition to the e-mail address and the complete postal address.

In text, references should be indicated by arabic numerals enclosed in square brackets. References should be listed consequtively numberred at the end of the article and conform to the following examples:

Journals, Proceedings papers
[1] A.B. Jones, C.D. Smith, Title of article, Journal title abbrev. 1 (2) (1998) 33-44.
[2] A.B. Jones, C.D. Smith, Title of article, Proceedings of the 3rd Conference on AI Pittsburgh, Penn., 1998, pp. 33-44

[3] A.B. Jones, Title of Book, 3rd ed., Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J., 1998, pp.33-44.
[4] A.B. Jones (Ed.), Title of Book, vol. 1, part 2,....

Chapters of Books
[5] A.B. Jones, Chapter title, in: C.D. Smith, E.F. Marks (eds.), Book Title, Annals of Math. Studies, No. 22, Elsevier, New York, 1998, pp. 33-44.

Reports, Special Publications, Theses
[6] A.B. Jones, Paper title or report title, Tech. Report #3D-4D, SRI International, Menlo Park, Calif., 1998.
[7] A.B. Jones, Title of dissertation, PhD Thesis, Univ. Of Wisonsin, Madison, Wis., 1998.

In text, references should be indicated by arabic numerals enclosed in square brackets, in the list of references, references should be numbered consecutively and be put at the end of the paper.

Provide all illustrations on separate pages as high-quality printouts, suitable for reproduction (which may include reduction). Number illustrations consecutively in the order in which they are referred to in the text. Clearly mark all illustrations on the lower front side with the figure number.

For detailed guidelines on electronic figures, please refer to the 'artwork instructions' at http://authors.elsevier.com/ArtworkInstructions.html?dc=AI1


When your manuscript is received by the Publisher it is considered to be in its final form. Proofs are not to be regarded as 'drafts'. One set of page proofs in PDF format will be sent by e-mail to the corresponding author, to be checked for typesetting/editing. No changes in, or additions to, the accepted (and subsequently edited) manuscript will be allowed at this stage. Proofreading is solely your responsibility.

Further Information

Further information can be found at the Elsevier Science Author Gateway.




IFSA Publication

As an institutional member of the International Fuzzy System Association (IFSA), NAFIPS can offer personal subscriptions to several outstanding journals on fuzzy sets, knowledge based systems, and soft computing at reduced rates. These rates are applicable to members of NAFIPS only, to join NAFIPS and subscribe to any of the journals listed below, download the PDF form with payment and mailing instructions.

Member Subscription Rates
International Journal of Approximate Reasoning $83
Fuzzy Sets and Systems $235
International Journal of Uncertainty, Fuzziness, and Knowledge Based Systems $77
International Journal of Advanced Computational Intelligence $70
Journal of Intelligent and Fuzzy Systems $157

Subscriptions obtained through NAFIPS are for individual use only and may not be placed or used in institutional or university libraries or other libraries or organizations, nor may any of these subscriptions be used for library purposes.


Related Publications

International Journal of Approximate Reasoning
Elsevier Science
Official Publication of NAFIPS.

IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems
IEEE Press
The Fuzzy journal of IEEE's Neural Network Council.

Fuzzy Sets and Systems
Elsevier Science
Official Publication of the International Fuzzy Systems Association (IFSA).

IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics - Part B
IEEE Press
Features many fuzzy papers and allows for electronic submission.

International Journal of Uncertainty, Fuzziness, and Knowledge Based Systems
World Scientific Publishing Company

International Journal of Advanced Computational Intelligence
Fuji Press

Fuzzy Optimization and Decision Making
Kluwer Academic Publishers


Research Groups

Berkeley Initiative in Soft Computing (BISC)
University of California at Berkeley, USA
Lotfi A. Zadeh's research group at UC Berkeley. Check web site for Special Interest Groups and subscribe information for the BISC mailing list.

The European Network of Excellence on Intelligent Technologies
for Smart Adaptive Systems

Fuzzy Image Processing
by Hamid R. Tizhoosh, PAMI Research Group, University of Waterloo, USA
Nice site summarizing a lot of research in this field.

Fuzzy Logic in Integrated Reasoning
Knowledge Systems Lab of National Research Council of Canada
Home of FuzzyCLIPS, the Fuzzy Java Toolkit and FuzzyJESS.

Fuzzy Logic Laboratory Linz-Hagenberg
Linz and Hagenberg, Austria
Research group founded by E.P. Klement in 1991. Projects applying fuzzy technologies with different industrial partners in the areas of control, signal and image processing, finance, etc.

Knowledge-Based Technology - KBT
Software Competence Center Hagenberg, Austria
The knowledge-based technology (KBT) area of SCCH devotes its research to methodological issues in fuzzy rule-based machine learning, along with the necessary theoretical foundations.

Neural Networks and Fuzzy Systems
University of Magdeburg, Germany
Software for fuzzy control, classification, clustering, and function approximation.



Knowledge Systems Lab of National Research Council of Canada
FuzzyCLIPS is an extension of the CLIPS (C Language Integrated Production System) expert system shell. It enhances CLIPS by providing fuzzy reasoning capabilities. <

The FuzzyJ ToolKit and FuzzyJess
Knowledge Systems Lab of National Research Council of Canada
The FuzzyJ Toolkit is a set of Java classes that can be used to build fuzzy logic systems. It can also be used with Jess, the Java Expert System Shell, which is similar but more flexible than FuzzyCLIPS.

Jan E. Mortensen, Denmark
JFL is a special-purpose language used to write functions. It combines features from traditional programming languages like (C, Pascal, Basic etc) with fuzzy logic and machine learning. JFL is typical used for writing functions, where only informal descriptions exists (rule of thumbs, example values, etc). The syntax of a JFL program is close to the syntax of traditional programming languages (sample (non-fuzzy) jfl-program: idweight).
Jfs is copyrighted freeware. Versions exist for Windows 95/98/NT (binary+source code), and Linux (source code in ansi C with makefile).

FOOL & FOX: Fuzzy system development tools
Fuzzy Organizer OLdenburg
FOOL: Fuzzy system development tool with interactive 'foolproof' graphical user interface to develop fuzzy rulebases.
FOX: A small but powerful fuzzy engine. It works based on the databases created with FOOL and reads input from shell and writes new control values back to the shell. This allows you to include fuzzy routines in almost every programming environment.


Web Links

Fuzzy Logic Resources
Researchers, Journals, Professional organizations and networks, Research groups. Maintained by Robert Fullér.

New fuzzy archive by thread.

Fuzzy-Mail Archives
Archives of the European Fuzzy Mailing List. Fuzzy-Mail is managed by Wolfgang Slany. The Asian Fuzzy Mailing List is managed by Mikio Nakatsuyama. The European, Asian and NAFIPS-L Fuzzy Mailing Lists are interconnected.


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